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                生態文學創作開拓新局面

                閱讀:159 次 作者: 來源:人民日報 發布日期:2019-06-28 09:02:46
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                  隨著生態文明建設穩步推進,生態文學創作也迎來嶄新面貌。越來越多的作家致力其中,思想性、藝術性上都較以往有所突破,這一題材在文學版圖中的重要性也獲得提升

                  生態文學寫作一直是當代文學的重要組成部分,從《大地上的事情》《狼圖騰》等曾在不同時期引發廣泛社會關注的作品中,我們能夠深切感受到作家對祖國生態環境建設的關注。近年來,“綠水青山就是金山銀山”發展理念深入人心,生態文明建設穩步推進,各地生態環境明顯改善,人們的生態意識不斷增強,生態文學創作也迎來嶄新面貌。越來越多作家致力于這一題材創作,以文學筆觸對生態文明建設成果進行藝術化再現,在思想性、藝術性上都較以往有所突破,這一題材在文學版圖中的重要性也獲得提升。去年第七屆魯迅文學獎獲獎作品中就有散文《流水似的走馬》《遙遠的向日葵地》、報告文學《大森林》、中篇小說《蘑菇圈》等多部生態題材作品。

                  從作品思想內涵來看,早期生態題材文學作品主題較為單一,創作者往往用直接呼吁的方式指出人類活動對自然環境、自然資源的破壞將給自然生態系統和人類生存帶來嚴重后果,以此喚醒生態環境意識。故事發展脈絡基本可以分為兩類,一是以保護和破壞生態環境雙方的對立為故事主線,通過生態災難結局喚起人們的環保意識;一是通過謳歌原始狀態生態環境和生活方式,反思人類中心主義的危害。

                  在近年涌現的優秀生態題材文學作品中,作家更多地把生態保護話題放置于更廣闊的社會現實和歷史縱深的坐標系中,對人與自然關系的思考不斷深化,作品思辨色彩更加強烈,主題哲理性明顯加強,折射出的作家寫作姿態更加理性。如阿來中篇小說《三只蟲草》,沒有單純渲染挖掘蟲草的行為對草原植被的破壞,而是更加強調對生態環境的保護不應是孤立的,應該與改善人民群眾生活、扎實推進基礎教育等民生舉措緊密聯系起來。李青松長篇散文《塞罕壩時間》,不是單純歌頌塞罕壩林業人的奮斗歷程和獻身精神,而是把塞罕壩由貧瘠荒涼的沙地變為現代化林場的發展過程,放到當地乃至整個北方自然環境歷史變遷中來看,進一步凸顯塞罕壩植樹造林事業的歷史價值和時代意義。

                  在文學表現力方面,生態文學創作也獲得進展:生態文學作品正通過跨學科的知識譜系、多樣化的社會視角、個性化的意境營造,帶給讀者更加豐富新鮮的閱讀體驗。此前生態文學作家的筆墨往往傾注于兩個方面:對原始森林、草原等自然環境的奇觀化贊美,對棲居于原始自然環境中人們生活的傳奇式講述,進而與當代現實生活形成對比。簡單地說,即通過渲染某種陌生化經驗吸引讀者,激發讀者對破壞自然生態行為的反思,以及對原始自然環境的向往。

                  在近年來的優秀生態文學作品中,作家蕩開筆墨,用多樣化筆觸、豐富立體的情感,書寫良性生態環境帶給人們生活品質和精神面貌上的變化。這些作品整體上呈現出多元開闊的藝術風貌和豐富細膩的審美層次,從不同視角清晰還原生態環境獲得改善、科學生態觀念建立的過程。如艾平中篇小說《包·哈斯三回科右中旗》,從一位老牧民尋訪數十年前失散親人的經歷出發,通過老牧民在不同牧區的現場感受,令人信服地呈現當前經濟政策在保護草原生態、提高牧民生活水平方面的積極作用。鮑爾吉·原野散文《流水似的走馬》、李娟散文《遙遠的向日葵地》,語言生動幽默、生態場景描寫細膩扎實、整體格調明朗清新,散發出草原清晨般的氛圍。梁衡散文《樹梢上的中國》、蔣藍散文《豹典》、徐剛報告文學《大森林》等作品,串連整合生物學、生態學、地質學、歷史學、地理學等領域知識,思考深入,筆調堅實厚重,帶給讀者沉穩綿密、回味無窮的感受。

                  當前生態文學創作整體上呈現良好發展態勢,同時也存在一些不足。有的作家在進入生態文學創作領域時,并未建立起完備知識儲備,對生態環境變化和生態保護工作實際也缺乏深入細致把握,因而或出現科學謬誤,或從影視作品、新聞報道中借用二手信息,用假想、模仿代替踏訪、調查,把生態環境復雜的改善過程和生態保護實踐的艱巨努力簡化為若干個波瀾起伏的戲劇沖突,出現作品編織痕跡較明顯、內在肌理虛弱、現場感不強等問題,非但沒有通過文學創作引發人們對現實的關注和思考,反而簡化弱化人們對生態保護實踐的認知。

                  任何一種文學類型的發展都不是孤立的,生態文學也是如此,它在思想性、藝術性方面取得的發展,和生態環境的改善、人民生態觀念的變化息息相關。我國生態文明建設的生動實踐和豐富成果,為生態文學繁榮發展提供取之不竭的創作資源。生態文學的生命力就在于把我國生態環境發展更立體、更全面、更深刻地展示在讀者面前,從人類命運共同體的高度和視野,把人類生存發展和生態環境保護之間的深層關聯更清晰地呈現出來,在讀者心中建立起更加科學的生態觀念,為人們勾勒出更美好的未來圖景,從而為我國生態文明建設提供更加充足的精神動力,形成生態文學創作與生態文明建設相輔相成、共同發展的良好局面。


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