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                詩歌的人化和傳達的精致——評鄧太忠新著《穿過內心的出口來等你》

                閱讀:910 次 作者:何開四 來源:封面新聞 發布日期:2019-03-13 12:00:00
                基本介紹:

                  錢鐘書先生早期有一篇論文叫《中國固有的文學批評的一個特點》,他把這一特點概括為“文章通盤的人化或生命化”,或者說“我們把文章看成我們自己同類的活人”。在傳統文論里,如風骨、形神、肌理、血脈、骨骼、格調、性靈、韻味、精神之類,幾成文評的習語。實際上,文評如斯植根于詩文如斯。細檢歷代詩文,詩經、楚辭、唐詩宋詞,都可尋出端倪。如果集中讀一讀宋代楊萬里的詩章,更會明白這個道理。我想,這和中國古代哲學摒棄二元對立,而強調道法自然,天人合一大有關系。

                  近讀蜀中詩人鄧太忠的新著《穿過內心的出口來等你》,也于此深有會焉。可以說鄧太忠的詩作承續了這一傳統而含弘張光。他的詩歌就是一個人化的世界,自然、人文、歷史、人生,都成為他審美創造的對象化。無論是狀寫鄉愁,還是行游唱吟,均一以貫之。茲聊舉數例,以概其余;

                  午夜的螢火蟲/讀懂森林寬厚的胸襟/以細微的光點/給山河亮起前行的路燈

                  ——《山鄉夏夜》

                  聆聽大海/龍頭深垂著永遠的虔誠/肢體以浪濤的方式/ 三山五岳間延伸

                  ——《山海關》

                  我的根系滿村莊煙雨的光影/路過的蟲子也叫得出我的 乳名

                  ——《我的村莊》

                  青藤攀上老屋/想喚醒檐后那條小溪/與靈動的白云/陳述你的前世今生

                  ——《鄉下老屋》

                  讀這些詩情濃郁的文字,你會感覺到萬物有靈,山川大地都賦予了人的品格,人和自然如此親近,大大地拉近了讀者的閱讀距離。也許有人會說,這無非是一種擬人化的表述,何足道哉。這種理解還止乎表淺。擬人化只是一種修辭格,一種技巧而已。人化的詩歌是美學的追求和美學的境界。在這里,自然萬物已不是和人隔離或對立的異類,而是具有人性的鮮活存在。人和自然的對話,轉化為人和人的對話。這是筆補造化,這是實踐美學中人化自然的精神性表述。所謂詩歌世界,就其本質而言,就是詩人創造的具有審美性的人化世界。它表達的是人和自然靈犀相通,表達的是藝術創造者對自然的尊重和熱愛。以寫鄉愁而論,我所多見的是詩人分行似的對鄉愁的詮釋,或矯揉造作的鋪排,而鄧太忠卻另辟蹊徑,營造了自己的鄉愁世界。“我的根系滿村莊煙雨的光影/路過的蟲子也叫得出我的乳名”,真是發唱驚梃,那個可愛的“蟲子”因詩而人,成了父老鄉親的共名,而生于斯長于斯的鄉愁情愫于此淋漓盡致。這還不是妙手偶得,你讀一讀他的《山鄉夏夜》《鄉下老屋》《鄉民》《我的村莊》等諸篇什,莫不如斯,給人留下深刻的印象。何以鄧詩人能把鄉愁表現得如此氣韻生動,蓋其詩歌底色是人化的世界也。

                  鄧太忠注重詩歌的人化,也注重詩歌的藝術傳達,講求詩美;詩歌的精致化是他的一貫追求。他的夫子自道是:“詩歌永遠不能脫離詩歌的母體。節奏、音韻、意境、含蓄、文字的分行排列缺一不可,否則就不是詩歌。”他的這種自覺,符合造藝規律,并形成了自己的藝術風格。以下,我談三點,以見一斑。

                  善于用喻。詩是形象思維,用喻是其基本功。古人云:不學博依,不得安詩。意思就是你不能廣泛地使用比喻,就寫不好詩。亞里士多德也稱,“善于使用隱喻字表示有天才”。中外一揆,是為通識。鄧太忠的詩歌用喻富于特色,他一般不用簡單的明喻和暗喻,而盡量泯滅本體和喻體的界線,多以借喻和曲喻出之,尤其是后者已超越了修辭,成為謀篇布局的骨架。所謂曲喻者,是指以喻體的一端再作延伸,產生新的審美效應。這在古典詩詞中,所見多多。賀知章《詠柳》中的“不知細葉誰裁出?二月春風似剪刀”; 孟郊《詠吹角》中的“如開孤月口,能說流星心”;李商隱《天涯》中的“鶯啼如有淚,為濕最高花”;李賀《天上謠》中的“天河夜轉飄回星,銀浦流云學水聲”都是其中的佳例。錢鐘書稱曲喻詩美為“著墨無多,神韻特遠。”鄧太忠于此深有會心,他在現代詩歌里刻意放大了這一效應,令人耳目一新。試舉一例以明之。“方塊字長出帝王的顏色/應該是隸書,/經歷又一次活字印刷”;“玉米的心思終于出版/掛滿老屋的檐脊/公開發行”(《玉米》)。把玉米粒比作方塊字,再通過聯想,由“方塊字”這一喻體延伸到“帝王的顏色”、“隸書”、“活字印刷”、“出版”、“公開發行”,前后銜接,環環相扣,揚其波,暢其流,如影視畫面的有機切換,真是別開生面了。古典詩詞的曲喻,一般是作一次延伸,鄧太忠則是踔厲發揚,發揮到極致。再看看他的《稻》《老龍頭》《色達》《鄉下老屋》《寒山寺》《沙湖》等,曲喻都得到了嫻熟的表現,運用之妙,存乎一心矣。

                  通感的泛化。通感是審美心理學的范疇。指的是審美中諸如視覺、聽覺、觸覺、嗅覺、心覺等感官的溝通,造成表達上的生動感和新奇性。這在鄧太忠是詩歌里,也是經見習聞。“牽著涪江、渠江的嘉陵江/悄悄話很甜,/龍門陣很酸”(《行走的江》);“我用陽光洗一次手,就能從/思想的深淵/領略一絲單純的溫柔”(《思想者》)“高原的陽光/最慈愛你/一點一滴的慰藉,流淌/詩意的芬芳”(《雪蓮花》)“從此,疼痛也很美麗/不需要回首/渴望是唯一的行囊/日夜兼程,原來/都走在來世的路上”(《分手》)。詩人異于常人,正是感知的細微、敏感和復雜,并能得心應手的傳達。以上詩行中,人的感覺完全打通,得到了充分的釋放;即便是思想者的抽象,也轉換為感性的具象。如果略作辨析,我們還可以發現鄧太忠的通感可分為兩類:一種較為單純,一種則是在眾多的意象疊加中感覺的挪移。前者如《行走的江》,后者如《思想者》《分手》等,都頗耐人尋味,情思悠悠,逸興遄飛。還須一說的是,鄧太忠的通感,重視語匯的整合,他往往能把一些了不相干、相去甚遠的詞語組合在一起,從而形成巨大的藝術張力,如“疼痛”與“美麗”、“陽光”與“洗一次手”、“渴望”與“行囊”等,均是自出心裁,發他人之所未發。

                  執著于詩歌的音樂化。詩歌自有詩歌的文體特征,那就是音樂性。這是它和散文的一個重要區別。在當代詩歌中,這一點受到漠視和稀釋。散文的分行排列,缺乏韻律感,成為不少詩人的通病。鄧太忠則反是,從他進入詩壇始,就非常重視這一問題。鄧太忠名昭大號的是“詩歌永遠不能脫離詩歌的母體”,而且在他的創作中認真踐行之。實際上,在白話詩歌中有無音樂感,單是看是不行的,也必須吟誦,方能領略其妙。試讀鄧太忠的《遂寧讀蓮》:

                  煙雨磨利了光陰/多淺,多深/你一頭躲進水里/半睡半醒

                  輕風彈奏葉脊的弦音/起舞的紅蜻蜓/沒有點水/卻起了花心

                  讀不懂漣漪/根穿過一汪夢境/一絲粉紅的輕盈/數子臨門

                  詩歌輕靈,營造了一個美麗而含蓄的意境,很像宋詞中的一首小令。吟誦中,你會感覺到一個自然的節奏和輕音樂的旋律,押韻合轍。而且,這種音樂感不是外在于詩歌的存在,而是詩歌的有機構成,成為有意味的形式。如果再讀一讀我在前文中引述的《山鄉夏夜》《山海關》《我的村莊》《鄉下老屋》,你會對鄧太忠詩歌的音樂性有更深刻的認識。

                  大喊大叫并不是詩歌,因為它容易把詩美殺掉。錢鐘書先生談詩時也多次說,“要運冷靜之思,寫熱烈之情”,所以,重視詩的審美特征,使之精致化,應該成為詩人的自覺。就此,鄧太忠詩歌創作,值得借鑒。

                  鄧太忠正值盛年,正是詩歌“井噴”的時候,希望他在詩歌的人化和傳達的精致上更上層樓,有更多更好的作品問世!

                  【作者簡介】

                  何開四:四川瀘州人。曾任四川省作家協會副主席、四川省文藝評論家協會主席,為國務院政府特殊津貼獲得者、全國魯迅文學獎評委、全國矛盾文學獎評委、全國少數民族文學“駿馬”獎評委、全美中國作家聯誼會顧問。曾先后獲全國“五個一工程”獎、廣電部“星光”獎、全國電視“金鷹”獎、全國“文華”獎以及四川省政府社科獎、四川文學獎、四川省文學評論獎等百余次獎項。

                標簽:詩歌,書評
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