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                毛姆評4位文學巨匠,個個都是西方文學史上的重量級作家

                閱讀:410 次 作者: 來源: 思想走在荒路上 發布日期:2019-05-21 09:31:31
                基本介紹:

                  毛姆是英國著名的小說家、劇作家,他寫過一本《巨匠與寫作》,這本書對西方多個文學家進行了一番評價,個個都是西方文學史上的重量級作家!本文挑選了其中的4位進行介紹,他們分別是巴爾扎克、福樓拜、狄更新和陀思妥耶夫斯基。

                  一、評巴爾扎克

                  他是個自私自利、寡廉鮮恥、不夠誠實的人。針對他在經濟上的極不穩定,最好的理由無非就是:憑著輕松而樂觀的性情,他始終堅信自己通過寫作能掙到大筆錢(他一度確實進賬不少),并通過投機掙到數目驚人的錢,當時的投機買賣接連誘發他那豐富的想象力。可是每當他真正參與一項的時候,結果卻總是負債更多。倘若他真的理智審慎、腳踏實地、生活節儉的話是決不會成為他那樣的作家的。

                  他是個很愛炫耀的人,崇尚奢華,花起錢來很難自控。為了償還債務,他拼了命地工作,然而不幸的是,更為緊迫的舊債還沒還上,他就簽了新的欠債合同。有一件奇特的事情值得提及,那就是只有在負債的壓力下,他才能下定決心認真創作。

                  這個時候,他能一直寫到臉色蒼白、筋疲力盡,而且他真是在這種環境下寫出了自己最好的幾部小說;可要是什么時候太陽從西邊出來,他居然沒有身處困境,或者經紀人不來打擾,或者編輯和出版商沒有起訴他,他反而沒有了創造力,無法靜下心來動筆寫作。他在臨終前曾說,是他的母親毀了他;此言實在令人震驚,因為應該說他毀了他母親才對

                  二、評福樓拜

                  寫作的時候,福樓拜先是粗略勾勒出想說的話,然后對所寫的文字進行加工,不斷闡釋、縮減、重寫,直至達到預想的效果。在此之后,他會跑到自家的陽臺上,高聲喊出剛剛寫出的文字,假如不夠悅耳的話,他就確信其中必有問題。如若這樣的額話,他會取回稿子再次修改,直到滿意為止。小說家不能原封不動地照搬生活,他只是為你描繪一幅圖畫,如果他是個寫實主義者,那么他會盡力讓這幅圖畫生動逼真;而如果你相信他的話,他就成功了。

                  三、評查狄更斯

                  濟慈英年早逝,而華茲華斯活得太久,此乃英國文學之不幸;同樣不幸的是,當我國最偉大的小說家們處于創作巔峰的時候,當時盛行的出版方法卻鼓勵那種散漫啰嗦的文風,也鼓勵英國小說家們幾乎生來就有講題外話的傾向,這對他們的創作是很有害的。

                  四、評陀思妥耶夫斯基

                  我想不出有哪個人像陀思妥耶夫斯基那樣,做為人和作為作家之間具有如此之大的差別。可能所有創造力強的藝術家都有這種情況,但作家相對而言更為明顯,因為他們的媒介就是文字,而其行為與交流之間的矛盾令人更為震驚。

                  或許是這樣的:創造性天賦是童年與少年時代的一種十分正常的能力,可如果在青春期之后依舊存在,那么就是一種病癥了,只有在損害人類正常特征的情況下才會旺盛起來,也只有在混雜了邪惡品質的土壤中才能茁壯成長。陀思妥耶夫斯基所具有的驚人原創力,使他成為世上最卓越的小說家之一,而這種原創力的源頭,不是他身上的善,而是他身上的惡。


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